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Stanley Needs a Job

I know a guy named Stanley who needs a job. He’s in his forties and does not have a great resume or work ethic. He has some health problems. He seems to get hurt on the job a lot and has tried to sue more than one employer. He quit high school in the 10th grade but eventually earned a GED and joined the military. He characterizes his time in the military as the best time in his life. Since then, he has been out of work just as often as he has been employed.

Stanley has tried out some job training programs but none have helped him get or keep a job. “There are just certain types of people we are not equipped to help,” said the director of one such program. I was a little surprised to hear him say that since I knew the program was started some years ago to help people exactly like Stanley. The director went on to explain how his organization had made a conscious decision to focus on people with fewer issues than Stanley seemed to have before adding, “and we have been expanding rapidly ever since.”

I have heard explanations like this before. A non-profit starts out trying to reach the most hurting and marginalized in our midst but as the frustrations of dealing with the harder cases collide with the desire to grow the organization, they raise the bar on who they are willing to help. In some ways, it makes sense. Why spend 90% of your effort to help 50% of your clients achieve 10% of the desired outcomes? Focus on those who are ready and equipped to move forward and you will see the fruit of your hard work pay off more quickly while watching your programs grow and funding increase. Seems like a rational choice.

But what about Stanley?

There is a big difference between helping people get a job and helping a particular person get a job. When you help people get a job, you weed out the Stanleys until you find someone easier to work with. But when you try to help Stanley get a job, everything changes because he continues to matter to you whether he gets a job or not. If Stanley is more to you than a client – if he’s a friend, a family member, or a neighbor – you continue to invite him to social gatherings while he’s looking for work and after he gets fired from another job. You celebrate successes with him and empathize with his frustrations. You share your story with him and listen to his story. You laugh with him and cry with him. If Stanley is just a client, your relationship with him ends when his progress in your program ends.

We all need more friends in our life than we need program directors. We need more neighbors than case workers. And we need more family than we need professional care givers. That doesn’t mean that we never need professionals in our life or that it is somehow wrong to secure their help. What we all need is someone who will love us and encourage us even when we don’t make the best choices. It’s just harder for professionals to continue to be that loving person when we don’t get with the program or make our payments.

Neighborhood focused, place-based work ascribes higher value to neighborly kindness and familial care than professional help because it is more in line with our long-term interests and basic needs. There is certainly room for professionals to help but that help should be temporary and leveraged in ways that clearly support one’s long-term interests. It also means that one should expect limits to what professionals will be willing to endure.

I’ve known Stanley for a few years now. He needs a job. Although his wife is working, they are not quite making it and they may have to move out of the neighborhood they love so much. Their neighbors love them too. He and his wife regularly help their elderly neighbors with shopping and yard work. They participate in community meetings and helped start a community garden and newsletter. If they moved, it would really be a loss for the community.

Stanley also really wants to work. He says he feels better about himself when he’s doing something productive and actively contributing to the family’s finances. He hasn’t done well in the manual labor jobs that he typically gets and thinks if he tries another route things will improve. His self-confidence is really low and he’s not convinced that he can do other, non-labor-intensive jobs but he is willing to try. In sum, he could use professional help to learn some new skills and he might benefit from some professional counseling as well. But Stanley, like all of us, is most in need of unconditional love and support that only family, friends, and neighbors provide.

POLIS began piloting a program called Job Support Services earlier this year to help Stanley and 190 other people in his community who are out of work but looking for a job. The program helps residents apply to one of six employer partners who have agreed to give hiring priority to participants. Employers are willing to do that because we have assembled a team of volunteer residents and supportive partners who will help these applicants become great employees – child care, transportation, and encouragement will be provided.

We have also partnered with larger training and job support programs like the one mentioned at the beginning of this article. They can still focus on specialized services that help people get jobs – resume writing, job interviewing skills, technical skills – while the resident volunteers provide the type of emotional and tactical support that will eventually help Stanley secure and keep a job. POLIS is providing professional design and support services during the pilot phase. When this phase concludes, our support will transition toward a resident-run program that helps ensure that everyone in the community that wants a job, has a job, and that when particular people like Stanley lose jobs or struggle to find work, friends and neighbors will be there to offer encouragement and connections.

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Helping Residents Pursue Their Own Goals

One of the most important aspects of a life well-lived is the discovery and pursuit of one’s own goals and aspirations. For those of us who practice Asset-Based Community Development (ABCD), this is a fundamental part of the work – helping residents of a small geographic area leverage their skills and networks to realize their dreams. Connecting the dreams of particular residents to one another and those shared dreams to the overall transformation of a community is where the work gets exciting.

As straightforward as this sounds, this type of emphasis is quite rare. There are a few reasons for this, most of which are not bad. First, funding sources for programs tend to want to know what you plan to do before they give you the money. Makes sense. But then, that’s what you have to do. And if your grant was written to improve health outcomes in a community whose stated priority is jobs, then you have a conflict on your hands. The solution to this is to simply include a discovery phase for grants and to allow some ability to adjust to what is discovered.

Similarly, non-profits tend to get started to address a single, specific issue like homelessness, employability, school grades, or blindness to name a few. They then scale their work as they successfully help their clients address the issue. When the potential client-base is a city of over 200,000 people or a county of over a million people, a non-profit can continue its march towards excellence and success because it can and will focus its attention on those clients most amenable to what they have to offer. When the client-base is the residents of a particular neighborhood of 1,500 people, everything changes. And the business model of most non-profits simply will not survive that scale.

The solution to this is quite simple. Simply create a program whose sole purpose is to help the neighborhood residents establish and meet their goals while bringing in specialist partners who can help the residents succeed in particular areas. The biggest challenge to this is establishing sufficient trust to allow people to share their goals in the first place. Asking people what they are hoping to achieve in life is way more personal that asking them to show up to a cooking class. And this is one of the reasons that organizations don’t tend to do this type of work – it takes a very long time to build trusting relationships. But that is what we all need and desire in life.

We call this a Resident and Community Support Program after a program run by the East Lake Foundation in Atlanta. We are implementing a similar program on behalf of LIFT Orlando called MVP Families. Pictured above is Porcha, one of the core members of the program. The other day she took me aside to tell me how grateful she was for the program. She has now established her own goals for her family and is getting to connected to the best practices and some programs to help achieve these goals.

Here’s some of the numbers (as of Oct. 2016):

Total MVP Families:           55

Children:                                98

Avg. GPA:                               3.192

Over 2.0 GPA:                       93.3%

Established Goals:

  • Children’s Academic Success  100%
  • Family Relationships               90%
  • Health & Wellness
    • Eat Healthier 37%
    • Exercise More 41%
    • Reduce Stress 26%
  • Family Stability
    • Improve Finances 74%
    • Stabilize Housing 22%
    • Improve Transport. 15%

 

 

 

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The Most Strategic Philanthropic Investment

The most strategic philanthropic investment in the U.S. goes towards revitalizing the distressed neighborhoods that are the source of most of our social issues. These neighborhoods are also full of people with aspirations and talents. Philanthropist and businessman Tom Cousins said it this way, “America’s greatest untapped resource is the human capital trapped in neighborhoods of concentrated poverty.” This is a new model for philanthropy – holistically addressing all of the issues in a single small geography rather than trying to address a single issue across a large geography.

POLIS has set out to make this happen in Central Florida since our baseline research concluded (2006-2009). We didn’t invent the model, we just discovered it. We also found no evidence of any mature effort to implement the model in Central Florida. Today, there are 10 comprehensive efforts to revitalize 33 of our 100 distressed neighborhoods. Each effort is distinctly focused on a particular geography in order to maximize the “holistic capitalization” required (the phrase we coined in our research to describe the approach). And each effort is in a different stage of the process. We help keep these initiatives on track while comparing any gains they produce to our overall “well-being” as measured by Gallup.

This is the POLIS framework for making a city stronger – strategically invest in its most distressed neighborhoods. Our role is that of a guide, facilitator, and evaluator. On behalf of a specific group of investors and for the primary benefit of the residents of these neighborhoods, we directly engage the community, equip community leaders, and evaluate the overall progress of the revitalization effort. We also run a Resident and Community Support Program in order to ensure that residents are armed with their own goals and plans when they engage with other non-profits and social service agencies that can help them achieve their goals.

Our work is important and it takes a lot of time to do this model. Time is money so we need and highly value your charitable contributions since they allow us to continue our march to propel Metro Orlando into the 90th percentile for well-being amongst America’s largest cities by 2030 (we are currently in the 59th percentile). As lofty as our primary goal is, the work boils down to affecting one family and one community at a time. Lend your support to our work today so that we can continue to make our city and our world a better place.

 

 

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Leadership: Unlocking Potential

Former basketball player and U.S. Senator Bill Bradley once said, “Leadership is unlocking people’s potential to become better.” So true. You could also say the same about a community. While leadership is certainly not the only ingredient in a community becoming better, it is easily the most important. And it is surprisingly undervalued. That may because the type of leadership we often see, particularly in struggling communities, is authoritarian and self-serving – the opposite of what Senator Bradley extolled. And so people grow suspicious of the very idea of leadership and learn to distrust the leaders that they follow – often by default. This persists even when the efforts of these leaders do not result in improvements or the unlocking of potential.

Polis Institute is adding a certification course in Growth Leadership to our training lineup in order to meet the need for more effective, other-focused community leadership. I am very excited about the pilot class that is being facilitated by Dr. Bahiyyah Maroon in Eatonville, Florida. Last night was the second of six classes in the series that will conclude on September 26th. The sense that potential was being unlocked before our eyes was palpable as the group shared positive stories of people living out moral principles – such as integrity, respect, and kindness – that are the foundation of the training. Early next year the program will be available to others who want to apply valuable leadership skills in their communities.

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Using Art to Visualize Community Assets

Asset-Based Community Development (ABCD) involves leveraging what a community has to offer so that it can move itself towards a desired future. A first step in the process is typically some kind of inventory of what is there – talents of individuals, programs and facilities, informal groups, property – the whole nine yards. This information is captured, analyzed, and visualized so that connections can be made and initiatives can be created that benefit the community. The product of this inventory is often called an asset map.

Art is a great way to visualize these assets and can serve as a nice complement to the more common options of a tabular list or a map. The most useful asset maps include all three – artwork, a database, and on dynamic online map. All three can depict the same information but are just displayed in different formats, each with its own appeal. The tabular data gives you just the facts, the map shows you where assets are, and artwork provides emotional and narrative content.

This video describes an art project that POLIS led as part of the LIFT Orlando project:

 

The project described in the video above was fairly complex. POLIS was contracted by LIFT Orlando to do the asset mapping project and hired ArtWorks to do the creative process with the children. There was a lot of planning to conduct the sessions in four different locations that included a school and three community centers. There were expenses to pay and significant expertise from the ArtWorks staff to guide the students through the process. But the end result was amazing. The art from the kids was inspirational and aligned very closely with what over 1,500 adults had said in door-to-door surveys.

The survey information was entered into a database which was also loaded into a GIS (Geographic Information System). But the information was also visualized in a more artistic way, or at least a graphic way. This involved loading the responses into an online word cloud generator called WordItOut (there are several) that produced a graphic of all of the recorded words of responses to the survey questions. The more frequent the word, the larger the word in the graphic.

Three of the questions that POLIS asks during its asset surveys are depicted below followed by example word clouds from the LIFT project.

What is your favorite thing about the neighborhood?

likemost

 

What would you do to make the community a better place?

makebetter

 

What is something that other people say you are good at?

goodat

 

These representations of what people say or imagine invoke much more of an emotive response than merely hearing a statistic or seeing a dot on a map. Data and maps are very helpful but less structured graphic and artistic representations of community assets can be especially helpful for unlocking ideas and vision – which are essential to making positive change. These images are presented at community meetings, along with stats and maps, to help build initiatives that are most likely to engage community interest and provide a tangibel community benefit.

 

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Asset-Based Surveys vs. Needs-Based Surveys

Door-to-door community surveys are commonplace, especially in low income areas. I recently heard a long-term resident of such a neighborhood say, “We’re like rats in a cage here. People always studying us, trying to fix us.” Universities, non-profits, community groups, government officials – everyone wants to know “What should we do to help people in this community?” A common response to that question is, “Well, let’s first find out what people need.” This often prompts the commissioning of a needs-based survey that catalogs and prioritizes these needs. The results serve as supporting evidence for raising funds and as a baseline against which progress can be measured over time.

Asset-based approaches stem from a desire to know “What do people in the community care about enough to act on themselves?” And, “What resources are already present in the community to make a start.”  These types of surveys yield ideas, reveal trusted groups and leaders, and expose the talents and interests of residents. The survey process is used as a catalyst for conversation and the foundation of community-led initiatives.

The differences between these two approaches, and the types of surveys that result, go far beyond the mere ‘glass half-full/glass half-empty’ perspective. They are actually two different glasses used for two different purposes and having two different primary financial beneficiaries. The purpose of the needs-based ‘glass’ is to provide services to a community while the purpose of the asset-based ‘glass’ is to engage community interests and skills. The needs-based glass is designed to primarily benefit service providers financially while the asset-based glass should primarily benefits residents financially. Both approaches involve needs and assets and both can be viewed from ‘half-full/half-empty’ perspectives. The difference is in who owns the glass – service providers or residents – and what’s in the glass – talents of service providers or talents of residents.

For entities outside of a community that want to help, following an asset-based approach means doing things with the community rather than for the community. It requires emphasizing and utilizing what the community has to offer over what it lacks. And it is is distinguished by the types of initiatives that result – who is involved, what the goals are, who leads, how they are sustained, and who benefits financially. Greater community involvement results in more sustainable initiatives and greater community impact over the long term. If you want to empower a community to chart its own path forward, needs based services will never get you there. It is simply a different ‘glass’ altogether than the asset-based glass.

The table below contrasts some of the key differences between asset and needs-based surveys:

Needs-Based Surveys Asset-Based Surveys
Focus on learning about the needs of a community so that services can be provided for them or goods can be given to them. Focus on learning from a community so that initiatives can be built by the community and with the community.
Pose an extensive list of closed-ended questions to a minimum representative sample of a community. Pose a short list of open-ended questions to as many people in the community as possible.
Yield problems for which a service provider can provide solutions and programs. Yield ideas most likely to directly engage the community in addressing their hopes and concerns.
Constrains community-wide vision of the future. Unlocks community-wide vision of the future.

 

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Orlando – least economically segregated large metro

Orlando is the least economically segregated large metro area in the United States according to a recent report update from sociologist Richard Florida.  This is good news for Orlando. Economic segregation, especially for the poor, has proven to be a significant social problem. Absent the social networks that open doors to the best of careers, the quality education that helps one obtain and succeed in those careers, and the role models that demonstrate the breadth of what is possible, the most talented and ambitious among us struggle to succeed.

And it’s not just about money. It’s the “deleterious social effects that accompany spatial concentration of poverty” – the stigmatization, the alienation, and the moral cynicism (Florida, Wilson, Sampson). These, and other factors, serve as psychological and sociological reinforcements that must be contended with to develop an abiding sense of one’s intrinsic self-worth even if one’s economic worth remains relatively low.

The level to which U.S. neighborhoods are economically segregated has more than doubled in the past forty years. The wealthy and the poor are becoming less and less likely to interact with one another and, as Richard Florida puts it, “effectively occupy different worlds.”

And since we tend to distrust that which we do not understand and tend to not understand that with which we do not interact, our economic segregation poses significant problems in building dignified relationships across socio-economic lines; the types of relationships that enrich perspective and facilitate opportunity.

From 1978 to 2012, in roughly the same time frame as the doubling of economic segregation, average CEO pay has risen 875 percent while the typical worker’s pay has risen 5 percent. These two facts are not completely disconnected. CEO pay is approved by board members who, most likely, are relatively high wage earners themselves. If these board members live in enclaves starkly separated from low wage earners, it’s not difficult to imagine the ease with which they might approve such disproportionate levels of CEO pay.

Said another way, when you do not know anyone personally who works a low-wage job, it’s easier to forget about them and to make decisions that adversely affect them without necessarily harboring any ill will towards them.

Currently, however, Orlando is less economically segregated than any other large metro. The main reason for this fact is the fundamental nature of the area’s economy – tourism and hospitality. Working and service class economies “militate against economic segregation” while knowledge-based economies tend to be the most economically segregated (R. Florida). Said another way, high-tech, creative class workers with college degrees seem to leverage their options to separate themselves from the poor.

Attracting these workers, and the industries that employ them, is a priority for many leaders in Central Florida who see diversifying the economy as one of the best ways to strengthen the region. There is wisdom in this goal. Orlando’s service sector economy has proven to be very vulnerable to national and even international economic downturns.

But if Orlando succeeds in diversifying the economy by becoming more high-tech, it will likely become much more economically segregated. Either way, Orlando’s population will almost certainly continue to grow and larger urban areas tend to be more economically segregated.

While Orlando is the least economically segregated large metro (more than one million people), it is still ranked 203 out of the 350 metros that were analyzed in the study. Orlando is economically segregated, just less so than other large areas. Add the inevitable population increase and a successful move to a more knowledge-based economy, and Orlando will drop further down the list unless steps are taken to prevent it.

So what steps could Orlando take to improve its economic diversity?

  1. Focus on neighborhoods – If our distressed neighborhoods become more desirable places to live, those with a wider range of choices will choose to move in or to not move out of these communities. According to Richard Florida’s study, it is the migration of the wealthy to exclusive enclaves that most propels economic segregation. Polis Institute identified 100 distressed neighborhoods in 2009 and outlined a best-practice driven plan to remediate this distress over a generation (distress was calculated as an index of income, housing, education, family structure, and crime rate variables). Five years into the process, tangible progress is being made in over 20 of these neighborhoods. Continuing to utilize asset-based strategies with the residents of small geographic areas is still the best option to strengthen these areas.

 

  1. Choose diversity – Nothing fuels economic segregation more than personal choice. If people don’t personally see the value of living in and interacting with economically diverse communities, they will not choose to do so. So value-espousing institutions such as churches have a responsibility to communicate the value of diversity. This may require a learning curve or even a wholesale paradigm shift for the leaders of such institutions. The book Place not Race makes a strong case that diverse classrooms are far more adept at raising educational achievement levels than merely providing additional resources. Living life with people of different backgrounds and social status proves over and over to be of benefit to everyone involved. But such diversity doesn’t always come easy. It has to be worked for and in order for people to work for it, they have to value it. In order to value it, they have to understand it.

Orlando is changing. The four counties that make up the metro area (Orange, Seminole, Osceola, and Lake) have seen a net population increase of 88 people per day, every day, for over 40 years and counting (U.S. Census, ESRI). As more people call this area home, as leaders work to attract more knowledge-based businesses, as world-class venues get upgraded and built, Orlando is becoming a big city.

Orlando’s emergence on the big city scene affords it a tremendous opportunity – to show the country how a big city can still enjoy economic diversity and afford its citizens, all of its citizens, genuine opportunity to rise with the tide. By improving quality of life in distressed neighborhoods and by embracing diversity at the personal level, Orlando could accomplish what no other major city in the U.S. has been able to accomplish – retaining richly diverse communities that grow and thrive together.

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Collaboration in Human Centered Design – The Lake Lorna Doone Park Initiative

Lake Lorna Doone Park, which is owned and managed by the City of Orlando, is being redesigned. Improving this historic park, which sits in the shadow of the Orlando Citrus Bowl, is a top priority for area residents as reported in surveys completed by Polis Institute in early 2014. As the year progressed, an action plan was created, initial funding was secured, and the design process got underway. In January of 2015, the first formal design plans will be unveiled for additional comment.

The redesign process was initiated and funded by LIFT Orlando. Florida Citrus Sports has pledged an additional one million dollars towards the project and is providing leadership as it progresses. It is being facilitated by Polis Institute. Jacobs Global Buildings is drafting the physical and architectural plans. Key contributors include residents who live near the park, regular users of the park, and the City of Orlando.

The truly collaborative effort makes this redesign unique. The partners are working together at the same table. This is rare. Collaboration is one of those words that everyone likes to say but no one likes to actually do. It takes more time. You hear more complaints. You entertain more ideas. You include more voices.

More voices means more opinions. Different opinions. Each time a new opinion is voiced it represents another person that is not going to get exactly what they want. But it’s these very differences of opinion, when voiced in the context of a healthy design process, that become integral strands of a strong and sustainable solution.

Dan Kirby and Kevin Kuehn move the design process forward with City of Orlando, residents of West Lakes, Polis Institute, and LIFT Orlando

Dan Kirby (back left) and Kevin Kuehn (fourth from the right) from Jacobs Global Buildings move the design process forward with City of Orlando, residents of West Lakes, Polis Institute, and LIFT Orlando

Human Centered Design (HCD) is just such a healthy design process. HCD sets a stage where these myriad voices converge at the harmonious intersection of desirability, feasibility, and viability. What do people really want? What is technically and organizationally feasible? What is financially viable? (Human Centered Design Toolkit)

The bulk of the work thus far has been centered on answering the desirability question. In many ways, that’s the fun part. The work is now transitioning into the feasibility phase and will conclude with viability. Answering these questions is not strictly linear but it does help to allow each question to take center stage for a season. Maintaining focus and making steady progress keeps collaborators more engaged.

Long-term resident Tangia Smikle hopes that her teenage daughter will get to really enjoy the park like she did in her youth and that the park will be fully accessible to people with disabilities. Thomas Frazier, who walks the perimeter of the park several times a week, hopes that a paved walking path will one day undergird his trek. The five walking clubs in the immediate area share his interest.

Eugene Leach, a lifelong advocate for youth recreation, longs to see a first-class playground and well-maintained sports amenities like basketball courts. Margaret Hill envisions a beautiful fountain on this historic lake. Many others share her vision. Doug Head wants people to be able to learn about the ecology of the lake and the rich cultural history of the neighborhood as they enjoy the park.

Volunteers from Polis Institute and Collins Recreation talk with people in the park during a Family Fun Day

Volunteers from Polis Institute and Collins Recreation talk with people in the park during a Family Fun Day

Amidst these hopes for the future, there are also concerns. Many current regular users of the park, who range from organized athletic teams to pickup basketball groups to the ever-present dominoes crew, fear that their interests won’t be preserved in an updated park. The City wants to make sure that anything that is put in place is sustainable, safe, and helps them meet demands from across the region for park amenities. Many people who do not currently use the park but would like to, express concerns about safety and not feeling welcome.

The greatest uses of the park currently are large, informal social gatherings that happen each week. The park is a regional gathering place for the African American community. Most of these regional visitors have a very personal, local, connection to the park. Many share stories of running through the park during football practice when they were at Jones High School or recall playing in little league games on the currently absent baseball fields. Still others go way back and talk about swimming in the lake that is now only suitable for fishing.

The common denominator of these stories is connection. “This is where I can always catch up with my family and friends,” said Rod Faulk. “That’s important.” He wants to see a nice fountain in the lake too. He’d love it if the there was another basketball court. But most of all he wants that sense of connection to the place itself, and the people who have woven their story with it, to remain regardless of any changes.

Allowing all of these voices to inform the design for the park will result in the best park possible for this place at this time in its history. That is the benefit of collaboration. We are far better together than we are alone.

Additional info:

Lake Lorna Doone Park – Desirability Sessions Report (9/15/14 – provides detail for each session held over the summer)

Lake Lorna Doone Park – Action Plan (10/22/14 – summarizes the initial design work and drafts a plan)

If you would like to stay informed of the progress of this effort, please sign up for the Polis Institute e-newsletter.

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Community Transformation: Top Down or Bottom Up?

Polis often gets asked, “Does community transformation happen from the top down or the bottom up?” It might be surprising to hear that the answer is “yes.”  It takes both, plus a concerted effort from the middle. This is what makes the Polis model distinct and effective. Bottom-up efforts tend to run into capacity issues while top-down efforts often struggle to sustain community engagement. Both bottom-up and top-down efforts often fail to yield an impact, particularly in chronically distressed neighborhoods. The key is in the middle. Polis focuses on directly connecting the interests of high capacity investors (top-down) with the interests of residents of distressed neighborhoods (bottom up). The result is transformation.

Polis has developed a proven methodology to make it work. It requires listening intently to the residents of a particular distressed neighborhood while simultaneously listening intently to caring people of substantial means who want their ideas, talents, and social connections as well as their charitable dollars to truly make a difference. These are often highly successful business people. Both of these groups have too often been ignored. The business people have been seen almost exclusively as funders for needs based services and poor residents have been seen almost exclusively as clients for needs based services. Polis works directly with both groups, maps assets at all levels, and creates opportunities for them to come together in ways that lead to measurable change.

Working in a small geographic area (less than a square mile) with a dedicated Investor Council of high capacity leaders, residents are recruited, trained, and employed to do the work of community building. In the process, they learn important workplace skills, build helpful community initiatives, and make some money. The initiatives that are built garner additional support as needed but maintain at least 50% involvement from residents at all levels (staff, volunteers, clients). The initiatives are aligned with goals from the Investor Council in order to make measurable improvements in key areas such as wellness, housing, education, and income.

polis-model